Lesson 4 Basic Sentence 1

 Basic Sentence 1

 

Subject + verb + Object = 주어(joo uh=subject) + 목적어(mok juk uh=object) + 동사(dong sa=verb)

 

Structure:

 

I am a student. 나는 학생입니다(na neun hak saeng im ni da)

 

입니다 can pronounce( im ni da )not( ib ni da)

 

is subject.(I)

 

is subject particle. if subject ends with last sound, should change to (eun)

 

학생 is object.(student)

 

입니다 is verb.(is)

 

# Words that can replace I are pronouns and most of the nouns :

 

Pronouns:

 

you =( nu)

 

he = (geu)=그 남자(geu nam ja)

 

she = (geu)= 그 여자(geu yu ja)=그녀(geu nyu)

 

it = 그것은 (geu gu seun) geugut eun is right way to dictate but we can pronounce geu gu seun

 

this = 이것은 (ee gu seun) ee gut eun is right way to dictate but we can pronounce ee gu seun

 

that = 저것은 (jug u seun) ju gut eun is right way to dictate but we can pronounce ju gu seun

 

we = 우리들은( oo li deul eun)

 

you= 너희들은(nu hee deul eun)

 

they =그들은(geu deul eun)

 

these= 이것들은 (ee gut deul eun)

 

those = 저것들은 (ju gut deul eun)

 

In Korean, adding (deul) make a plural form of the noun.

 

# Words that can replace student are most of nouns.

 

Example :

 

Occupation=직업(jik ub)

 

teacher= 교사(gyo sa) , principal=교장(gyo jang), doctor=의사(eui sa)

 

nurse= 간호사(gan ho sa), dentist=치과의사(chi gwa eui sa)

 

president=대통령(dae tong nyung) lyung is right way to dictate but can pronounce nyung. singer=가수(ga soo), actor=배우(bae woo), secretary=비서(bee su) , player=선수(sun soo)

 

congressman=국회의원(gook hoi eui won) taxi driver=택시기사(taek shi gi sa)

 

professor=교수(gyo soo), writer=작가(jak ga), poet=시인(shi in), reporter=기자(gi ja)

 

painter=화가(hwa ga), soldier=군인(goon in),

 

Fruit=과일(gwa il)

 

apple=사과(sa gwa), pear=(bae), watermelon=수박(soo bak), strawberry=딸기(ddal gi)

 

grape=포도(po do), peach=복숭아(bok soong ah),

 

people= 사람들(sa lam deul)

 

boy=소년(so nyun), girl=소녀(so nyu), man=남자(nam ja), woman=여자 (yu ja)

 

baby=아기(ah gi), friend=친구(chin goo),

 

Sentence Example:

 

He is a painter. = 그는 화가입니다. (geu neun hwa ga im ni da)

 

Those are apples.= 저것들은사과입니다. (ju gut deul eun sa gwa im ni da)

 

They are soldiers.= 그들은 군인입니다. (geu deul eun goon in im ni da)

 

Apple is a fruit.= 사과는 과일입니다.(sa gwa neun gwa il im ni da)

 

Exercise:

 

Translate these to Korean

 

  1. I am a taxi driver.

  2. He is a professor.

  3. They are doctors.

  4. These are pears.

  5. She is a reporter.

  6. That is a watermelon.

  7. That man is a painter.

 

Write a right subject-particle in ().

 

  1. ( ) 학생입니다.

  2. 이것들( ) 복숭아입니다.

  3. 저 사람( ) 교사입니다.

  4. 저 남자( ) 교수입니다.

  5. ( ) 가수입니다.

Lesson 3 Making a letter, Word

As we learned in lesson 1, Korean word can be made with letters and letters can be made with first sound(consonant)  and second sound(vowel) and  last sound(consonant).

 Example review:

ㄱ(first sound) and ㅏ(second sound) and ㅇ (last  ) make 강 (letter).

ㅂ(first sound) and ㅕ(second sound) and ㄴ (last sound) make 변(letter).

강(letter) and 변(letter) make 강변(word).

 

Here is a letter chart with basic consonants and basic vowels.

 

(ga)

(gya)

(gu)

(gyu)

(go)

(gyo)

(goo)

(gyoo)

(geu)

(gi)

(na)

(nya)

(nu)

(nyu)

(no)

(nyo)

(noo)

(nyoo)

(neu)

(ni)

(da)

(dya)

(du)

(dyu)

(do)

(dyo)

(doo)

(dyoo)

(deu)

(di)

(la)

(lya)

(lu)

(lyu)

(lo)

(lyo)

(loo)

(lyoo)

(leu)

(li)

(ma)

(mya)

(mu)

(myu)

(mo)

(myo)

(moo)

(myoo)

(meu)

(mi)

(ba)

(bya)

(bu)

(byu)

(bo)

(byo)

(boo)

(byoo)

(beu)

(bi)

(sa)

(shya)

(su)

(shyu)

(so)

(shyo)

(soo)

(shyoo)

(seu)

(shi)

(a)

(ya)

(u)

(yu)

(o)

(yo)

(oo)

(yoo)

(eu)

(i)

(ja)

(jya)

(ju)

(jyu)

(jo)

(jyo)

(joo)

(jyoo)

(jeu)

(ji)

(cha)

(chya)

(chu)

(chyu)

(cho)

(chyo)

(choo)

(chyoo)

(cheu)

(chi)

(ka)

(kya)

(ku)

(kyu)

(ko)

(kyo)

(koo)

(Kyoo)

(keu)

(ki)

(ta)

(tya)

(tu)

(tyu)

(to)

(tyo)

(too)

(tyoo)

(teu)

(ti)

(pa)

(pya)

(pu)

(pyu)

(po)

(pyo)

(poo)

(pyoo)

(peu)

(pi)

(ha)

(hya)

(hu)

(hyu)

(ho)

(hyo)

(hoo)

(hyoo)

(heu)

(hi)

 

You can make letters with double consonants and complex vowels too.

Example ;  ㄲ(gg) +ㅏ(a) = 까(gga)                          

     ㄸ(dd)+ (u) = 떠(ddu)                              

    ㅆ(ss) + ㅗ(o) = 쏘(sso)                           

    ㅃ(bb) + ㅜ(oo) = 뿌(bboo)                   

     ㅉ(jj) + ㅣ(i) = 찌(jji)

    ㄱ(g) + ㅐ(ae) = 개(gae)           ㄱ(g) + ㅘ(wa) = 과(gwa)             ㄱ(g) + ㅚ(oi) =괴(goi)

    ㄴ(n) + ㅔ(e) = 네(ne)               ㄴ(n) + ㅐ (ae) = 내(nae)              ㄴ(n) + ㅚ(oi) = 뇌(noi)               

    ㄷ(d) + ㅚ(oi)  = 되(doi)            ㄷ(d) + ㅐ(ae) = 대(dae)                              ㄷ(d) + ㅙ(oae) = 돼(doae)

    ㄹ(l) + ㅖ(ye) = 례(lye)

  

If you add last sound to basic letter you could make lots of letters.

Example ;   가(ga) + ㄱ(k) = 각(gak)         고(go) + ㅇ(ng) = 공(gong)          그(geu) + ㄹ(ㅣ) = 글(geul )      

      나(na) + ㄴ(n) = 난(nan)        나(na)  +ㄹ (l)  = 날(nal)                                노(no) + ㅇ(ng) = 농(nong)                        

     다(da) + ㄹ(l) = 달(dal)             도(do) + ㅇ(ng) = 동(dong)         두(doo) + ㄹ(l) = 둘(dool)

     라(la) + ㄱ(k) = 락(lak)            

     머(mu) + ㅇ(ng)= 멍(mung)        며(myu) + ㅇ(ng) = 명(myung)     무(moo) + ㄹ(l)= 물(             mool)

     바(ba) + ㅂ(b) = 밥(bab)            벼(byu) +ㄹ(l) = 별(byul)               보(bo) + ㄱ(k) = 복 (bok)

     서(su) + ㄱ(k) = 석(suk)              새(sae) + ㄱ(k)= 색(saek)              수(soo) + ㄹ(l) = 술(sool)       

    어(u) + ㄹ(l) = 얼(ul)                      이(i) + ㄹ(l) = 일(il)                        여(yu) + ㅇ(ng) = 영(yung)    

    조(jo) + ㅇ(ng) = 종(jong)           지(ji) + ㄱ(k) = 직(jik)                   자(ja) + ㅂ(b) = 잡(jab)

    초(cho) + ㄱ(k) = 촉(chok)        치(chi) + ㄴ(n) = 친(chin)            추(choo) + ㅇ(ng) = 충(choong)

    토(to) + ㅇ(ng) = 통(tong)        

    코(ko) + ㄹ(l) = 콜(kol)             

    푸(poo) + ㅇ(ng) = 풍(poong)      피(pi) + ㄹ(l) = 필(pil)              펴(pyu) + ㅇ(ng) = 평(pyung)

                  후(hoo) + ㄴ(n) = 훈(hoon)         혀 (hyu) + ㄴ(n) = 현(hyun)     희(heui) + ㄴ (n) = 흰(heuin)

                  까(gga) + ㅇ(ng) = 깡(ggang)

                  떠(ddu) + ㄱ(k) = 떡(dduk)        뚜(ddoo) + ㅇ(ng) = 뚱(ddoong)

                  빠(bba) + ㅇ(ng) = 빵(bbang)

                  짜(jja) + ㄱ(k)  = 짝(jjak)                           

                                               

Now you can make words with those letters.

Example ;   가+구=가구(ga goo)  = furniture

                     나 + 비 = 나비(na bi)  =butterfly

                     다 + 리 = 다리(da li) = leg or bridge

                     아 + 버 + 지 = 아버지(a bu ji) = father

                친 + 구 = 친구(chin goo) = friend

                빵 + 집 = 빵집(bbang jib) = bakery

                흰 + 색  = 흰색(heuin saek) = white color

                포 + 도 =포도(po do) = grape

다 + 람 =다람쥐(da lam jwi) = squirrel

메 + 뚜 + 기 =메뚜기(me ddoo gi) = grasshopper

명 + 령 = 명령(myung lyung) = order

코 + 뿔 + 소 =코뿔소(ko bbool so) = rhinoceros

              표 + 범 =표범(pyo bum) = leopard

환 + 자 = 환자(hwan ja) = pacient

동 + 그 + 라 + 미 = 동그라미(dong geu la mi) = circle

               

 

                                               

 

 

 

 

Lesson 2 Korean Alphabet (Vowels)

To learn Korean we have to study Korean alphabet first.

Korean alphabet is 24 characters, 14 consonants and 10 basic vowels.

Vowels can be used in second sound place.

Basic vowels:

sound like a(far).

Example ;  가상(ga sang)

sound like ya(yard).

Example ;  야수(ya soo)

sound like u(up).

Example ;  언니(un ni)

sound like yu(young).

Example ; 여자 (yu ja)

sound like o(go).

Example ; 고모(go mo)

sound like yo(yogurt).

Example ; 교실 (gyo shil)

sound like oo(goose).

Example ; 구슬(goo seul)

sound like yoo(you)

Example ; 유리(yoo li)

sound like eu

Example ; 그림(geu lim)

sound like i(it) or ee(geese)

Example ; 지구(ji goo)

Complex vowels

Complex vowel is vowel with two or three basic vowels combined.

= ㅓ+ ㅣ ㅔsound like e(get).

Example ;  세상(se sang)

= ㅏ + ㅣ  ㅐsound like ae(get – In English, Korean sound ㅔ and ㅐ are same.)

Example ; 개구리(gae goo li)

= ㅐ + ㅣ  ㅒsound like yae(yet).

Example ;

=  ㅔ+ㅣ  ㅖsound like ye(yet - In English, Korean sound ㅒ and ㅖ are same ).

Example ; 예절(ye jul)

= ㅡ +  ㅣ  ㅢ sound like eui.

Example ; 의자 (eui ja)

=ㅗ +ㅏ ㅘ sound like wa(waffle).

Example ; 왕(wang)

=  ㅜ + ㅓ  ㅝ sound like wu(water)

Example ; 원한(wun han)

= ㅗ + ㅣ  ㅚ sond like oi(wet).

Example ;  죄(joi)

= ㅜ +ㅣ  ㅟsoind like wi(we).

Example ;  뒤(dwi)

= ㅗ +ㅐ  ㅙ sound like oae.(wet - In English, Korean sound ㅚ and ㅙ are same.)

Example ; 돼지(doae ji)

= ㅜ + ㅔ   ㅞ sound like ooe(wet- In English, Korean sound ㅚ and ㅙ and ㅞ are same. )

Example ;   웨딩(ooe ding)

 

Lesson 1 - Korean Alphabet (Consonants)

Korean is phonogram like English.

Korean letters consist 2~3 phonetic alphabets.

First, second and last phonetic sound make a letter and a words can be made with 1 to several letters.

For example:

ㄱ(first sound) and ㅏ(second sound) and ㅇ (last sound) make 강 (letter).

ㅂ(first sound) and ㅕ(second sound) and ㄴ (last sound) make 변(letter).

강(letter) and 변(letter) make 강변(word).

 

To learn Korean we have to study Korean alphabet first.

Korean alphabet is 24 characters, 14 consonants and 10 basic vowels.

Consonants can be used in first and last sound places and vowels can be used in second sound place.

 

Basic Consonants:

is 기역(gi yuk) and  sound  like g (gate).    If  ㄱ is in last sound we could read as k.

Example ;  가을(ga eul)    낙서(nak su)

is 니은(ni eun) and sound like n (navy). 

Example ;  나무(na moo)

is 디귿(di geut) and sound like d(dog).     If ㄷ is in last sound, we could read as t.

Example ;  다리(da li)    받다(bat da)                                 

is 리을(li eul) and  sound like l (log).

Example ;   라면(la myun)

is 미음(mi eum) and sound like m (mother).

Example ;   마루 (ma loo)

is 비읍(bi eub) and  sound like b (boy).

Example ;   부모(boo mo)

is 시옷(si ot)and sound like s or sh (spin or ship). If ㅅ is in last sound, we could read as t.

Example ;   수건(soo gun)   솟구치다(sot goo chi da)

is 이응(ee eung) and  has no sound when it is on first sound place and make ~ng  sound when it is on

     last sound place. ( gang)

Example ;    여우(yu oo)   병(byung)

is 지읒(ji  eut)and  sound like j (jail).    If ㅈ is in last sound, we could read as t.

Example ;  전기 (jun gi)    찾다( chat da)

is 치읓(chi eut) and sound like ch(chair). If ㅊ is in last sound, we could read as t.

Example ;   차(cha)    꽃 (ggot)

is 티읕(ti eut) and sound like t (table).

Example ;   타조( ta jo)  

is 키읔(ki euk) and sound like k (kite).

Example ;   카메라(ka me la)

is 피읖 (pi eup) and sound like p(paint).

Example ;  파랑(pa lang) 

is 히읗(hi eut) and  sound like h(hide).  If ㅎ is in last sound, it does not have sound and only make 

                                                                           next sound strong.

Example ;   하늘(ha neul)    좋다(jo ta)

Double Consonants:

These double consonants can be found in only Korean.  In English, we don’t have this kind of sound.

Double consonants make sound strong.

is 쌍기역(ssang gi yuk) and  sound like gg.

is 쌍디귿(ssang di geut) and sound like dd.

is 쌍비읍(ssang bi eub) and sound like bb.

is 쌍시옷(ssang si ot) and sound like ss. (kind of like sale)

is 쌍지읒(ssang ji eut) and sound like jj.

 

Special Double Consonants

And there are some other double consonants like ㄳ, ㄶ, ㄼ, ㄺ,ㅄ,ㅀ,ㄻ,ㄵ  which can be used in

 last sound place and make only one of those sound and effect next sound.

 

sound likeㄹ(l).  It make next sound strong when consonant comes next and ㄱ(g) sound goes to  

                                   next when vowel comes next.

Example ;  맑다 (mal dda)    맑은 (mal geun)

sound likeㅂ( b) but ㅅ goes to next sound.

Example ;  값이 (gab si)

sound like ㅂ(b) or ㄹ(l). It make next sound strong when consonant comes next and ㅂ(b) sound

                                                 goes next when vowel comes next.

Example ;  밟다(bab dda)    밟아서(bal ba su)

sound like ㄹ(l).  It make next sound strong when consonant comes next and ㄱ(g) sound goes to  

                                    next when vowel comes next.

Example ; 밝다( bal dda)   밝은 (bal geun)

sound like ㄴ(n).  It make next sound strong when consonant comes next and ㅎ(h)does not affect

                                     next sound  when vowel comes next.

Example ; 많다 (man ta)   많은 (man eun)

 

sound like ㄹ(l).  It make next sound strong when consonant comes next and ㅎ(h)does not affect

                                     next sound  when vowel comes next.

Example ; 잃다 (il ta)   잃어버리다 (il uh bu li da)

sound like ㄱ( k).  ㅅ(s)does not affect next sound  when vowel comes next.

Example ; 품삯(poom sak)   품삯을 (poom sak eul)

sound like ㄴ(n).  It make next sound strong when consonant comes next and ㅈ(j) sound goes to  

                                   next when vowel comes next.

Example ;  앉다(an dda)   앉아서(an ja su)          

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